We all know the importance of water as it is being used for many purposes like drinking, irrigation, industry, transport, electrify production and much more. Being having too many utilities, it can be recycled again and again. Though recycled water may not be used for drinking or cooking purpose, yet utter Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab are using the same water for irrigation and farming. Drip and sprinkler irrigation plays a significant role in saving the Hugh quantity of water.
There is huge demand of water in industries so industrial sectors offer the great chance to save the water at the great level. Instead of using potable water, recycled water must be used so as to restore or conserve the fresh water for drinking purposes. Likewise, proper planning can be done while supplying water in domestic areas. For example, recycled water can be produced for flushing purposes. It will restore almost 12% water.If people adopt an economical policy, then water resulted from kitchen sink, wash basin, the bathroom may be stored and can be reused for flushing purposes. It would save the high amount of fresh potable water.
The term is used to restore the rain water for future use with effective management and conservation. The stored rainwater can be used for human, animals and planting needs through the water collection method matters a lot. Water is collected and pumped through separate pipe distribution. Developing countries like India is using such method to reduce the cost of operation, maintenance & distribution of treat the plants. Kelvin India follows the procedures which are worthy and can reduce the cost of treatment plants without compromising the quality.
Though rainwater harvesting can be used anywhere yet it has huge potentiality amidst areas where the ground water level is reducing, where ground water is inadequate, and where infiltration of rain water has decreased eventually.
As a whole, the country has been divided into 2 parts:
The method of treating the rain water may be different due to an availability of space and equipment. We will explain the most popular methods and techniques of rainwater harvesting system.
Urban areas are equipped with large buildings and huge roads. Rainwater may be available on rooftops, paved and unpaved areas which go waste if it is not utilized. The rainwater can be recharged to an aquifer and used at the time of discrepancy of water. Though we should design a system which do not occupy extra space and rooftop can be a better idea for the same. Here we are mentioning the most popular techniques to be used for rooftops water harvesting:
This kind of technique is suitable for the roof having 100 sq metro area. These are the small pits which can be in any form like rectangular, square, circular etc. though the size can 1-2 mtr wide and 2-3 mtr long. These pits are filled with brick, stone sand etc with weep hole at regular intervals. While establishing recharge pit, boulders are placed at the high bottom, gravels at the middle and sands in the upper which are covered with perforated covers. The top layer of sand should be cleaned at regular intervals to maintain the recharge pit. This pit is well suited for shallow aquifers and small houses.
This has a wider scope than recharge pit as it is used where the roof area is 200-300 sq mtr. This is usually in the rectangular form with having a size of .5 - 1 mtr wide, 1-1.5 mtr deep and 10-20 mtr long. Size may vary according to the availability of water. Again it can be filled with pebbles, Boulder, and sands. Like recharge pits, boulders are filled at the bottom, gravels at the middle and coarse sand at the top so that sludge can be laid on the upper surface which is easy to clean.
This is most prominent where aquifers are dried up and existing tube wells are tapping deeper aquifer. In this case, 10 cm diameter PVC pipes are connected to roof drains to collect rain water. The water is run off through the bottom of the drain pipe and subsequent water is flown off through a T to an online PVC filter. This PVC filter is 1-1.2 m long though the diameter varies according to the roof, 15 cm in case of less than 150sq meter and 20 cm for more area. The filter is divided into three chambers- first is filled with gravel, second with pebbles, and last with bigger pebbles. Rainwater is taken to chambers which are well connected with the filter pit through pipes having the slope of 1:15. The filter pit has two chambers- one of which is filled with filter material and another one is left blank in case of excess filtered water.
It is most suitable for the places with huge rainwater on roof or surface within in short period. Trench or pits are used to store the water in filter media and to recharge ground water with constructed recharge wells. Recharge well is made with the diameter of 100-300 below 3-5m water level. And a trench is constructed in the Centre with recharge well with the diameter of 1.5-3 meter width and 10-30 meter length though the quantity of recharge well depends on the availability of water. The trench is filled with gravel, pebbles, and sand like above procedures. If the aquifer depth is more than20 meter then a shallow shaft with 2-5 meter wide and the 3-5 meter long can be placed. A recharge well is also constructed for recharging the water to deeper aquifers. A filter media is also provided to avoid choking of recharge well.
Rural areas follow different procedures as compared to urban areas due to an availability of space and rains water. We can follow the below-mentioned techniques or processes to avoid wastage of water going to river, slopes, Nalas, rivulets etc.
Local stones, clay, and bushes are used to build gully plugs. These gully plugs are helpful in conserving soil and moisture. The sites can choose where a small break is found amidst slope behind the bunds to collect the water.
It is another effective method for conservation of soil and moisture. Water flow can be stopped with the erosive velocity between bunds though space depends on the slope of the area. Ad permeability of the soil. The contour bunds are most suitable for the area so low rainfall and moderate slopes without involving terracing.
This is constructed across small streams to collect stream water with the help of boulders and iron wires to co-joint the stream. The structure height may be of .5 meter for the stream having a width less than 10 m.
In this process, an artificial surface water body is created in which rain water run off is made to recharge the ground water. This tank is built with the fractured and weathered rocks. It must be equipped with wells and cultivable land to get the benefit of augmented ground water.
These are constructed around the small streams having the smooth slope. The height of the structure is normally less than 2 meter and excess water is flown above the walls. To control the runoff, numbers of check dam can be constructed to have recharge on the regional scale.
Being the most cost effective in nature, it is being used widely in rulers areas. The shaft may be dug manually with the normal diameter of 2 meters or more. The shaft is devised into parts of lined and unlined. The unlined shaft is filled with the help of boulders, cobbles, gravels and coarse sand and lined shaft indulge small conductor pipe to fed recharge water. Rainwater may be evaporated due to the situation so it is better to install recharge shafts which may add ground water. The tank may have .5-3meter diameter and 10-15 meter length.
Existing dug wells are used by making it clean and desilt. Only desilt water is recharged with the use of filter pipe or desilting chamber. Periodic chlorination is to be done to make the water dust free and contaminants free.
Rainwater harvesting is the prominent method of treating the water and re-utilizing the waste water. So instead of traditional methods, cost effective modernized methods can be chosen to provide proper rainwater treatment provided through kelvin India.
Rain water harvesting is basically a simple idea of collecting and storing of rain water into tanks. Instead of separate tank, rain water may be stored in roof top made of tiles, plastic & metal sheets. Rain water is stored to make it usable for drinking or some other purposes.
Rain water harvesting plants can be installed anywhere depending upon the place requirement. Plants size may also vary according to the place and requirement. Rain water harvesting policies may vary from state to state but yet it must fulfill the Govt. standards and norms
Rain water is highly recommended to use as it is free from the minerals, salts and bacteria. So it can be used for drinking as well as for daily applications of household and industrial purposes. Excess rain fall areas may recharge the groundwater through artificial techniques. And thus it will make the ground water level upto the mark
Kelvin Water Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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Residential, Commercial and Industrial ROs are fitted with automated filtration
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